Lease Pumper's Handbook Published by the Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells of Oklahoma, First Edition 2003 Written by Leslie V. Langston Table of Contents Introductions A. Cover Sheet Book Title B. Publishing Information First Edition, 2003

The Lease Pumper's Handbook

Published by the Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells of Oklahoma, First Edition 2003 Written by Leslie V. Langston Table of Contents Introductions A. Cover Sheet Book Title B. Publishing Information First Edition, 2003


Written by Leslie V. Langston


Publishing Information. First Edition, 2003. C. Foreword. Rick Chapman, Executive Director (1996-2000) Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma. D. Dedication. John A. Taylor, Chairman (1992-1998) Commission on Marginally Producing Oil And Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma. E. Author’s Introduction. Leslie V. Langston, Author, First Edition F. Commission Introduction. Liz Fajen, Executive Director, Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma.


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A. Duties and Responsibilities of the Lease Pumper 

1. Job Duties. 

2. Work Hours. · Lease pumper work schedules. · Lunch time. 

3. Company Policies. · Contract pumping services. · Honesty is critical for employer trust. 

4. Special Precautions. · The use of drugs or alcohol. · Hazards from heat sources. · Carrying firearms to work. vi B. Field Operations 

1. Dressed for Work and Weather. · Full-length pants. · Steel-toed shoes. · Eyeglasses and protective shields. · Gloves. · Hard hat. 

2. Miscellaneous Gear. · Rags or wipes. · Pens, pencils, and paper. · Other items. 

3. Typical Lease Hand Tools. · Vehicle tool and equipment storage. · The lease pumper’s toolbox and storage shed. 

4. Oil Gauging and Test Equipment. 

5. Lease Operating Expenses. · Supply expenses. 

6. Government Regulating Agencies. · The Bureau of Land Management (BLM). · Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). · Environmental protection and standards. 


A. Getting to the Lease 

1. Vehicle Expense and Maintenance. · Taking care of the lease vehicle. · Driving to and from the lease. · Lease roads. 

2. Company Policies for Vehicle Use. · Personal use of the vehicle. · Unauthorized personnel in the vehicle. 

3. Locating the Lease. · Location identification signs. · The federal system of rectangular surveys. · Locating the next lease. · Survey markers. 

B. Routine and Emergency Communications 

1. What Is an Emergency? 

2. Emergency Telephone Numbers. 

3. Company and Personnel Communications. 4. Field Support Services Telephone Numbers. vii 5. Lease Locations. 

C. General Lease Maintenance 

1. Landowner and Lease Operator Rights. 

2. Off-Road Travel. 

3. Livestock Injuries. 

4. Plants and Animals. 

5. Lease Maintenance. · Road maintenance. · Cattle guards and gates. · Fences. · Vista of the lease. · Weed control. · Trash removal · Open pits and vents. · Lease offices. · Soil contamination. 


A. Personal Safety 

1. Good Judgment and Common Sense. · Being prepared. 

2. Taking Unnecessary Chances. 

3. Making Safety a Part of the Job. 

4. Industry Standard Notices, Warning Signs, and Markers. · DANGER. · WARNING. · CAUTION. · NOTICE. · SAFETY. · RADIATION. · The location of safety and fire safety equipment. · Barriers. · Typical lease signs. 

5. Safety Equipment. · Breathing apparatus. · Goggles. · Hearing protection. · Eye wash stations. · Spark-proof tools. 

B. Hydrogen Sulfide and Natural Gas Safety. 

1. Introduction to Hydrogen Sulfide Gas 

2. What Is Hydrogen Sulfide? viii 

3. Properties of Hydrogen Sulfide. 

4. The Dangers of Breathing H2S. 

5. Safe Working Procedures in Gaseous Areas. · Safety training programs for working around hydrogen sulfide. · Where will the lease pumper encounter hydrogen sulfide? 

6. Breathing Apparatus. · Individual fresh air packs. · The five-minute air pack. · The thirty-minute backpack. · Compressing fresh air. · The industrial sized bottle and hose. · Trailer-mounted equipment. · Taking care of air breathing equipment. 


A. Looking Downhole 

1. Oil-bearing Reservoirs. 

2. Formation Shapes. · Dome formations. · Anticline formations. · Fault trap formations. · Reef trap formations. · Lens formations. · Unconformities. 

3. The Anatomy of an Oil Well. 

B. Drilling Operations 

1. Contracting the Well to Be Drilled. · The tool pusher. · The driller. · The derrick worker. · The floor workers. · Motor man. · Company representative. 

2. Drilling the Well. 

3. Downhole Measurements. 

4. The Surface String of Casing.

 5. Intermediate Strings of Casing. 

6. Drill Stem Tests and Drilling Breaks. 

7. Keeping the Hole Full Gauge and the Packed Hole Assembly. 

8. Drilling a Straight Hole. 

C. Completing the Well 

1. The Final String of Casing. ix · Cased-hole completion. · Open-hole completion. 

2. Perforating and Completion. 

3. Tubing. 

4. The Tubing String. · Mud anchor. · Perforations. · Seating nipple. · Tubing. · The packer. · The holddown. 

5. Correlating Perforations. 

6. A Typical Wellhead. · The casing head. · The intermediate head with casing hanger. · The tubing hanger. 


A. Producing Flowing Wells 

1. Allowables. · Coning wells and pulling in gas and water. · Effects of poor production techniques. 

2. Several Operators Owning Wells in the Same Reservoir. 

3. What Makes a Well Flow Naturally? · Packer removal. 

4. Producing a Flowing Well. · Master gate valve. · The pressure gauge. · The wing valve. · The check valve · The casing valve. · The variable choke valve. · The positive choke.

 5. The Skilled Pumper and Marginally Flowing Wells.

 B. Plunger Lift 

1. The Cost of Changing a Well to Mechanical Lift. 

2 How Plunger Lift Works. 

3. Benefits of Plunger Lift. · Reduce lifting costs. · Conserve formation gas pressure. · Increase production. · Produce with a low casing pressure. x · Prevent water buildup. · Avoid gas-locked pump problems. · Reduce gas/oil ratio. · Scrape tubing paraffin. · Improve ease of operation. · Use pneumatic or electronic controllers. · Achieve lower installation and operating costs. 

4. Plunger Selection. · Solid. · Brush. · Metal pad. · Wobble washer. · Flexible. · Clean-up plungers. 

5. Bumper Housings and Catcher. 

6. Controllers. 

7. Plunger Lift Configurations. 


A. Pump Operation 

1. Application of Mechanical Pumping. 

2. How Mechanical Lift Works. 

3. Problems Caused by the Cyclic Load Factor. 

4. Pumping at the Wrong Speed. 

B. Operating and Servicing the Pumping Unit. 

1. Mechanical Lift with Electric Prime Movers.

2. Mechanical Lift with Natural Gas Engines. 

3. Pumping Schedules. 

4. Automatic Controls. 

5. Maintaining the Pumping Unit. · The daily inspection. · The weekly inspection. · The monthly inspection. · The three- and six-month inspection. · Pitman arm and gearbox problems. 

6. Direction of Rotation.

7. Gearbox Oil. 

8. Typical Pumping Unit Problems. 

C. Wellhead Design and the Polished Rod 

1. Preparing the Well for Pumping Downhole. 

2. Pumping Wellheads. 

3. Selection of Polished Rods, Clamps, Liners, and Stuffing Boxes. xi · Polished rod. · The polished rod liner. · The polished rod clamp. · The stuffing box. · The polished rod lubricator. · The rod rotator. 

4. Tubing, Casing, and Flow Line Check Valves. · The tubing check valve. · The casing check valve. · The flow line check valve. 

D. The Downhole Pump 

1. Basic Components of the Pump. · Standing valve. · Barrel tube. · Plunger. · Traveling valve. · Holddown seal assembly.

 2. Pumps Designs. · Insert pumps. · Tubing pumps. · Other styles of pumps. 


A. Electric Submersible Lift 

1. Electrical Submersible Pumps. 

2. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Electrical Submersible Lift System. · Advantages. · Disadvantages. 

3. Downhole Components. · Motor. · Protector. · Gas separator. · Pump. · Cable. 

4. Surface Components. · Tubing head. · Chart meter. · Control box. · Transformers. · Electrical supply system. 

5. Special Surface Considerations. xii 

B. Operating Electrical Submersible Lift 

1. Well Operation and Automatic Controls. 

2. The Electrical Submersible Pump Well. 

3. Continuous Operation. 

4. Intermittent Operation. 

5. Servicing the Well When Problems Occur. 


A. Introduction to Hydraulic Lift 

1. Principles of Hydraulic Lift. 

2. Designing and Installing Hydraulic Lift Systems at the Wellhead. 

3. The Insert Pump. 

4. The Free Parallel Pump 

5. The Jet Pump. 

6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic Lift. · Advantages. · Disadvantages. 

B. The One-Well Hydraulic Lift System 

1. The One-Well Hydraulic System. 

2. The Advantages and Disadvantages of the One-Well System. · Advantages. · Disadvantages. 

C. The Central Power Hydraulic Lift System 

1. Central Power System from the Tank Battery. 

2. Crude Oil for Power. · The power oil lines. 

3. Produced Water for Power. 

4. Closed Power Oil Systems. 

5. Analyzing Production and Testing the Wells. · Modifications to the manifold. · Advantages and disadvantages. 


A. Introduction to Gas Lift 

1. The Use of Gas Lift. 

2. Advantages in Using Gas Lift. 

3. Setting Up a Gas Lift System. · Gas compression and distribution. · Control valve. · Packer. · Tubing valves. · The wellhead and the two-pin recorder. xiii 

4. How Gas Lift Works. · Sequences in unloading the well. 

5. Tank Battery Arrangements for Gas Lift.

 B. Conventional Mandrels 

1. Conventional Mandrel and Tubing Arrangements. 

2. Placing the Tubing and Valves in Order. 

3. The Gas Lift Valve. 

C. Side-Pocket Mandrels 

1. The Side-Pocket Mandrel System. 

2. Producing Oil Through the Casing. 

3. Continuous and Intermittent Gas Lift. 

4. The Wireline Machine and Wireline Safety. 


A. Basic Tank Battery Systems 

1. Oil Storage at the Drilling Site. 

2. The Natural Production Curve for a New Well. 

3. The Very First Production. · Gauging new production at the well location. · Storing oil in rectangular tanks. · Safety in gauging and testing oil in round vertical tanks. · Gauging procedures and tank charts. · Gauging the holding tank on the location. 

4. Storing and Accounting for Produced Crude Oil and Salt Water. 

5. What Is Produced from the Well? 

6. Designing a Tank Battery. · How the tank battery works. · Basic tank battery components. · Flow lines. · Header lines from the wells. · Vessels. 

B. Pressurized Vessels 

1. The Flow Line. · Laying new flow lines. · Road crossings. 

2. The Header. 

3. Pressurized Vessels. · Tank battery typical operating pressures. · The emulsion inlet. · The gas outlet. · The drain outlet. · The high oil outlet. xiv · The lower liquid outlet or water leg. · Floats. 

4. The Separator. · Operation of the two-stage vertical separator. · Pressure safety devices. 

5. The Heater/Treater. · Controlling the height of the water. · The fluid sight glasses. · Backpressure valves for pressurized vessels. 

6. Interior Design of the Vertical Heater/Treater. · Inlet line. · At the bottom. · The oil trip upward. · The water leg. 

C. Atmospheric Vessels 

1. Major Low-Pressure Gas System Components. 

2. Styles of Atmospheric Vessels. 

3. Common Lines and Openings of Atmospheric Vessels. · The emulsion inlet. · The equalizer inlet or outlet (Option 1). · The overflow line (Option 2). · The gas outlet. · The oil outlet. · The side drain outlet (Option 1). Side outlet. · The side drain outlet (Option 2). · The bottom drain outlet. 

4. The Gun Barrel or Wash Tank. 

5. The Stock Tank. · Cone-bottomed tanks. · The stock tank openings. · The oil inlet line. · The drain line inside the tank. 

6. The Water Disposal Tank. 

7 The Pit. 

8. The Dike. 

9. Vessels Solve Unusual Problems. 

D. Emulsion Line Systems 

1. Emulsion from the Well. 

2. The Flow Lines and Header. · The header. 

3. Chemical Injection at the Header. xv 

E. Crude Oil Line Systems and Equipment 

1. Lines from the Separator. 

2. Lines from the Separator to the Heater/Treater. 

3. Lines from the Heater/Treater to the Gun Barrel. 

4. Lines from the Gun Barrel to the Stock Tanks.

5. The Equalizer Line from Stock Tank to Stock Tank. 

F. Circulating and Water Disposal Systems 

1. Produced Water at the Tank Battery. 

2. Water Separation from the Heater/Treater and the Gun Barrel. · The gun barrel. 

3. The Circulating System. 

4. The Water Disposal Tank. 

5. Solving Circulating and Disposal Problems. · Circulating oil while removing water from the system. · Automatic circulation from the LACT unit. · Emptying vessels for maintenance. · Cleaning tank bottoms. 

6. The Circulating Pump. 

7. Hauling the Water by Truck. 

8. Water Injection.

 G. The Crude Oil Sales System 

1. The Oil Sales System. 

2. Selling Oil by Truck Transport. 

3. Selling Oil with the LACT Unit. 

H. Tank Battery Design Review 

1. What Does a Tank Battery Look Like? 

2. No Atmospheric Vessels. 

3. The Tank Battery Producing No Gas or Water. 

4. The Tank Battery Requiring a Gun Barrel. 

5. Tank Battery with Two Heater/Treaters and Two Stock Tanks. 

6. Single Tank with Shop-Made Gun Barrel on St and. 


A. Motors 

1. Fundamentals of Electricity. 

2. The Lease Electrical System. 

3. Control Boxes and Equipment Fuses. 

4. The Automated Control Box. 

5. Time Clocks and Percentage Timers. · The 24-hour time clock. · The percentage timer. 

6. Electric Motors. 

7. Electrical Safety. xvi 8. Costs of Electricity. 

B. Engines 

1. Introduction to Engines. 

2. Two- and Four-Cycle Engines. 

3. What Makes an Engine Run? · A heat source. · Fuel. · Compression. · Safety systems. 

4. Engine Oils and Oil Additives. 

5. Gasoline and Gasoline Additives. 

6. Antifreeze and Radiators. 

7. Single- and Multiple-Cylinder Engines. 

8. Diesel Engines. 

9. Natural Gas Fuel Systems. · Problems with wet gas containing water vapor.

 C. Circulating Pumps and Air Compressors 

1. Tank Battery Circulating Pumps. 

2. Installation and Maintenance. 

3. Understanding Gas Pressure. 

4. Air Compressors. 

5. Air Compressor Maintenance. 

6. Gas Compressor Operation. 


A. Lease Duties 

1. What Makes an Outstanding Lease Pumper? · Skills needed to become an outstanding lease pumper. 

2. Beginning the Day on the Lease. · Everything should be checked and observed during the morning rounds. · Visual Inspection. 

3. Planning and Scheduling . · Monthly, quarterly, semiannual, and annual maintenance. · Monthly Schedule. · Well testing. · Circulating tank bottoms. · Chemical treating schedule. · Planning upcoming tasks. 

B. Gauging Daily Production and Inspecting the Tank Battery 

1. Approaching the Tank Battery. · The visual inspection. xvii

 2. Gauging Equipment. · The gauge line. 

3. Gauging Oil and the Grease Book. · Gauging the stock tank. · Gauging water levels. · Switching tanks and opening equalizer lines. · Alternate day gauging. 

C. Analyzing Daily Production 

1. Problems with Short Production. · At the Tank Battery. · A flow line has broken or become plugged. · At the well surface. · Downhole. 

2. Problems with Overproduction. · Determining if the overproduction is oil or water. · When the tank battery is still in balance. 

D. Unitizing the Reservoir and Commingling Production 

1. Satellite Tank Batteries. 

2. Problems and Solutions for Combined Flow Lines. · The individual well tester. · Well tests at the satellite tank batteries. · Operation of satellite tank batteries. 

3. Unitizing Fields Under One Operator. 

4. Commingling Different Pay Zones. 5. Unitizing a Reservoir. · Problems in production that justify the need for unitization. · The effects of unitizing. 6. Commingling Wells with Different Well Operators. 

7. Working for More than One Operator. 

E. Repairs and Maintenance 

1. Effects of Reduced Production. 

2. A Reasonable Workload. 

3. At the Tank Battery. 

4. Leaks in Lines. · Upwind precautions when gas is present. 

5. Pumping Unit and Wellhead Maintenance. 

6. Automation Control Maintenance. 


A. Testing and Treating 

1. Treating Oil, Corrosion, and Scale. · Treating crude oil before sales. xviii · Reducing corrosion damage. · Scale deposits and sand stabilization. 

2. Testing Crude Oil. · Eight inches of emulsion and thiefing the bottom. · Tagging bottom with the thief. · Checking the bottom. · 1% or less BS&W and the centrifuge. · Oil temperature correction. · API gravity and the hydrometer. 

B. Methods Used to Treat BS&W. 

1. Overview of Treating Methods. 

2. Gravity. · Flash and slow water gravity separation in treating crude oil. 

3. The Use of Time in Treating Oil. 

4. Separating Crude Oil and BS&W by Movement. 

5. The Effects of Chemicals in Treating Crude Oil. 

6. The Effects of Heat in Treating Crude Oil. 

7. Treating Oil by Chemical-Electrical Processes. 

C. Treating with Chemicals. 

1. Purposes of Treating Chemicals. · The use of detergents to remove water. · Use of solvents for paraffin. · Bottom breakers for tank bottom emulsions. 

2. Introduction to Chemical Injectors, Styles, and Operation. · Treating oil at the tubing perforations or downhole. · Injecting chemicals at the tank battery. · Producing sellable crude oil. · Batch treatment while circulating. 

3. Special Treating Processes. · Cleaning tank bottoms. · The hot oiler. · The slop tank. 

D. Selling Crude Oil 

1. Preparing to Sell the Oil. · End of the month oil sales overload. 

2. Selling Oil. · Requirements for a full transport load. · Selling split loads. · Communication with the gauger. · The note jar. · Witnessing the oil sale and the rejection notice. xix 

3. Seals and Seal Accounting. · The run ticket. 

4. Selling Oil by Use of the LACT Unit and Surge Tanks. · Hot oiling. 


A. Introduction to Well Tests. 

1. Introduction to Well Testing. 

2. Pre-Test Preparation. · Shutting the well in. · Normalizing production by producing the well before testing. 

3. Preparing the Tank Battery for Testing a Well. 

4. Four Basic Well Tests. · Potential test. · Daily test. · Productivity test. · Gas/oil ratio test. 

5. Typical Test Information. · General lease information (typical for all tests.) · Well information. · Pumping well information. · Tank battery information. · Special data.

B. Standard Tests. 

1. The Reservoir and Drive Mechanisms. 

2. Potential Tests. · Purposes of the new well potential test. · Purposes for conducting a potential test after working over an existing well. · Potential testing conclusions. 

3. Daily Production Tests. 

4. Productivity Tests. 

5 Gas/Oil Ratio Tests.

6. Quick and Short-Term Special Purpose Tests. · Bucket and Barrel Tests. 

C. Special Tests. 

1. Well Logs and Surveys. 

2. Pressure Surveys. 

3. Temperature Surveys. 

4. Other Well Tests. · Caliper surveys. · Running scrapers. xx 

D. Gauges and Gauge Calibration

1. Quality of Gauges. 

2. Gauge Construction. 

3. Safety Gauges. · Liquid-filled gauges. 

4. Adjustable and Test Gauges. 

5. Calibrating Gauges and the Dead Weight Tester. · Testing the pressure of the well directly. 


A. Enhanced Recovery. 

1. Introduction to Enhanced Recovery. 

2. Enhanced Recovery Terminology. 

3. Technology Keeps Changing. 

4. Not All of Yesterday’s Procedures Will Become Obsolete. 

B. Primary Recovery. 

1. Primary or First-Stage Recovery. · Production allowable and productivity testing. · Sand and acid fracing. · Stabilizing formation sand and scale. · Echometer, dynamometer, gas lift, plunger lift, and other well analysis and automation control systems. · Hydrotesting, tracer surveys, well logging, and other surveys. · Moving the casing perforations up or down the hole. · Changing lift systems. 

2. Production Stimulation Through Horizontal Drilling. 

3. Beam Gas Compressors. 

4. Venting Casing Gas at the Wellhead.

 5. Perforation Orientation. · Raising casing perforations. · Lowering casing perforations. · Tubing/casing orientation. 

6. Innovative Procedures. 

C. Secondary Recovery. 

1. Secondary Recovery. 

2. Water Injection and Water Flood. 

3. Preparing a Well for Water Injection. · Downhole preparation. · Wellhead preparation. 

4. Operating the Water Flood System and Typical Problems. · Intermittent Operation. 

5. Gas Injection and Pressure Maintenance. xxi 

D. Tertiary Recovery. 

1 Introduction to Tertiary Recovery. 

2. Miscible Displacement Processes. · Miscible hydrocarbon displacement. · CO2 injection. · Inert gas injection. 

3. Chemical Processes. · Surfactant-polymer injection. · Polymer flooding. · Caustic or alkaline flooding. 

4. Thermal Processes. · Steam stimulation. · Steam and hot water injection. · In-situ combustion. 


A. Corrosion and Scale

1. Introduction to Corrosion. 2. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion. 3. Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion. 

4. Oxygen Corrosion. 

5. Electrochemical Corrosion. 

6. Problems with Scale. · Stopping scale in the formation and chemical treatment. · Protective coatings. · Scale removal. · Problems with scale caused by construction practices. 

7. Other Types of Corrosion. 

B. Corrosion Protection. 

1. How to Prevent Corrosion Damage. · Rust. · Oxidation. · Painting. · Inside coating and linings. · Oiling the outside. · Insulating flanges. · Sacrificial anodes. · Electrical current. · Tarring and wrapping for underground black metal lines. · Conduits. · Fiberglass. · Galvanized bolted tanks. xxii · Stainless steel and metal plating. · Plastic flow lines. · Chemical protection. · Mechanical barriers. 

2. Locating Corrosion Damage Downhole. 

3. Protecting the Casing Long String. · The use of insulating flange unions. · The use of sacrificial anodes. 

4. Corrosion Protection at the Tank Battery. · Tank battery elevation and ground protection. · Lines protection. · Protecting vessels on the inside. 


A. Well Servicing. 

1. Introduction to Well Servicing. 

2. Styles of Well Servicing and Workover Units. · Single-pole units. · Double-pole units. · Mast style units. · Single- and double-drum well servicing units. 

3. Roading the Well Servicing Unit to the Lease. 

4. Approaching the Well. 

5. Setting Up the Well Servicing Unit. 

6. The Well Records. 

B. Pulling the Rod String and Pump. 

1. The Rod String Records. 

2. The Strength of the Rod String. 

3. Straight and Tapered Rod Strings. 

4. Pulling and Running Rod Strings. · Power rod tongs. · Pulling stuck pumps. 

5. Running the Rod String into the Hole. · After the rod job is finished. 

6. Fishing Parted Rod Strings. 

7. Fiberglass Rods. 8. Downhole Pump Problems. 

C. The Tubing String. 

1. Tubing and Casing Perforation Depth Comparisons. 

2. Selection of Tubing Quality. 

3. Tubing Lengths and Threads. 

4. Measuring Line Pipe and Tubing Diameter. xxiii 

5. Pulling and Running Tubing. · The mud anchor. · Pipe length measurements. · Perforated nipple. · Seating nipples. · Packers, hold-downs and safety joints. · The tubing string. · Pup joints. · Wellhead hangers. 6. Typical Tubing Problems and Solutions. · Split collars and holes in tubing. · Standing valves. · Split tubing and hydrotesting. 

D. Wire Line Operations. 

1. Five Uses for Wire Lines in Servicing Wells.

2. Wire Rope. 

3. Functions of Guy Lines. 

4. Functions of Line from Drum to Blocks. 

5. Sand Lines. 

6. Solid Wire Lines. 

7. Electric Lines. 

E. Well Workover. 

1. Well Workover Operations. · Killing flowing wells and blowout preventers. · Blowout preventers. 

2. Stuck Pipe. · Salt bridges. · Scale deposits. · Sand control. 

3. Drilling with Tubing. 

4. Stripping Wells. 

5. Fishing Tubing. · Running impression blocks. · Hard impression blocks. · The soft impression block. · Fishing tools. 

6. Fracing/Hydraulic Fracturing Wells. 

7. Pulling and Running Tubing Under Pressure. 


A. Introduction to Natural Gas Wells. 

1. Understanding the Gas Well. xxiv 

2. Wellheads and Christmas Trees. 

3. Reservoir Characteristics of Gas Wells and Gas Production. 

4. Producing the Gas Well. 

5. The Wellhead and Safety Devices. · The tubing safety valve. · The surface safety valve.

 B. Fluid Separation. 

1. The High-Pressure Gas Well Separators. 

2. Three-Stage, High-Pressure Separation and Indirect Heating. 

3. Vertical Separators That Do Not Require Heat. 

C. Gas Dehydration. 

1. Gas Dehydration. 

2. Operating the Dehydration Unit. · The inlet scrubber. · The contact tower. · The glycol pump. · The dual-action pumps. · The heat exchanger surge tank. · The three-phase gas, glycol, and condensate separator. · The reboiler. 

3. Tank Batteries for Gas Wells. 

D. Gas Compression and Sales. 

1. Natural Gas Compression. 

2. Natural Gas Measurements. 

3. Testing Gas Wells. 

4. Pipelines and Pipeline Problems. · The removal of liquids from pipelines. 

5. Treating and Drying Natural Gas. 

6. Transporting Natural Gas Long Distances. · Cross-country gas lines. 

E. Natural Gas Systems. 

1. The High-Pressure Gas Line System. 2. Controlling the Pressure in the Separators and the Heater/Treater. 

3. The Well Testing Gas Measurement System. 

4. The Gas High Pressure Gathering System. 

5. The Low Pressure Gas Line System and the Vapor Recovery Unit. 

6. The vapor recovery unit. 

7. The Flare and the Gas Sales System. 


A. Lease Records. 

1. Advantages of Maintaining a Lease Records Book. 

2. Setting up the Lease Records Book. xxv 

3. Setting up Standard Records. 

4. The Daily Gauge or Grease Book.

 B. Well Records. 

1. Introduction to Well Records. 

2. Lease Drilling Records. 

3. Pumping Unit Information. 

4. Wellhead Records.

5. Casing Records. 

6. Tubing and Packer Information. · Packers and Holddowns. · Pulling Tension on the Tubing String. 

7. Sucker Rods, Pump Design, and Service Records. 8. Current Rod Servicing Records. · Past Rod Pulling Record. 

9. Electrical Information. · Control boxes and fuse information. · Electrical motor information. 

10. Other Well Record Information. 

C. Petroleum Production Records. 

1. Production Record-keeping. 

2. Typical Lease Operation Records. 

3. Production Reports. · Types of written oil production reports. · Gas production records. 

4. Important Production Records. · Well Information. · Single-Well Tank Batteries. 

5. Monthly Tank Battery Total Production Record. · Problem analysis from monthly test data. 

6. Records for Daily Use. · Yesterday’s tank gauges. · The daily, seven-day, eight-day, or monthly production report. · Monthly tank battery production of oil, water, and gas, and daily averages. · Monthly individual well tests. · Chemical consumption records. 

7. Benefits of Production Records. 

8. Supply Purchases. 

9. Time Sheets for Work Performed. · Company employees. · Contract labor. xxvi 

D. Materials Records. 

1. Materials Control. · Theft by Employees. 

2. Controlled Lease Equipment Storage. · Location of a storage area. · Security fencing. · Weed and mud control. 

3. Pipe Storage. · Pipe and rod storage areas and magnetic orientation. · Classifying used pipe. · Pipe rack design and numbering systems. · Pipe range. · Pipe collaring and condition. · Pipe separation and layering. 

4. Storage of Other Materials. · Arrangement, pads, docks, and weather protection. · Junk and scrap designations. · Chemical and drum storage, content marking, and accounting. · Winterizing and deterioration control. 

5. Joint Venture Inventory and Accounting. 

6. Transfer Forms and Procedures. · Materials transferred out of storage. · Materials transferred into storage. · Materials being transferred from one lease to another. 

7. Identification of All Chemicals Used or Stored on the Lease. · Identifying Chemicals and Marking Barrels. 

8. End of the Month Chemical Inventory. · Measuring barrel content. xxvii 


A - 1 API pump Designations. 

A - 2 API Sizes of Pumping Unit Designations. 

A - 3 Pump Abbreviations. 

A - 4 Kickover Tools for Running Gas Lift Valves. 

A - 5 Kickover Tool For Pulling Gas Lift Valves. 

A - 6 55-Gallon Drum Measurements. 

A - 7 The 7-Day Daily Gauge Report. 

A - 8 The 8-Day Daily Gauge Report. 

A - 9 The Weekly Gauge Report. (Vertical) 

A - 10 The Monthly Gauge Report. 

A - 11 Materials Transfer Record. 

A - 12 Pipe Tally Sheet. 

A - 13 Fishing Rods. 

A - 14 Rod Fishing Tools. 

A - 15 Lease Information Record. 

A - 16 Motor/Engine Records. 


B - 1. Types and Styles of Mechanical Pumping Units. 

1. Development of the Walking Beam Mechanical Pumping Unit. 

2. Styles of Pumping Units. 

3. Conventional Units. 

4. The Air-Balanced Pumping Unit. 

5. Mark Unitorque Units. 

6. Low Profile Units. 

7. Other Styles of Pumping Units.

 B - 2. Selecting and Setting Up Pumping Units. 

1. Selecting the Correct Pumping Unit Base. 

2. Height of the Base. 

3. Preparing the Base. 

4. Centering the Horse Head Bridle Carrier Bar over the Hole. 

5. Leveling the Pumping Unit. 

6. Safety Grounding. 

7. Selecting Guard Rails and Belt Guards. 

B - 3. Changing Pumping Unit Adjustments. 

1. Designing the Pumping Unit to Do the Job. 

2. Changing the Counterweight Position to Balance the Rod Load. 

3. Beam-Balanced Pumping Units. 

4. Changing Stroke Length. xxviii 

5. Lowering and Raising Rods. 

B - 4. Belts And Sheaves. 

1. Introduction to Belts and Sheaves. 

2. V-Belts, Sizes, Widths, and Depths. 

3. Types of Belts Based on Load Performance. 

4. Number of Belts Required to Start and Pull Loads. 

5. Lengths of Belts in Inches. 

6. Belt Life. 

7. Styles of Sheaves. 

8. Number of Grooves. 

9. The Keyway. 

10. Math Calculations. 


C - 1. Understanding the Tank Battery. 

1. Openings to Vessels for Lines. 

2. The Shape and Purpose of Vessels. 

3. From the Well to the Tank Battery. 


 D - 1. Pipe, Casing, and Tubing. 

1. Seamed and Seamless Steel Pipe. 

2. Pipe Schedules for Surface Construction. 

3. Lengths or Classes of Pipe. 

4. Sizes of Pipe. 

5. Tubing

 6. Casing. 


 E - 1. Special Information About Chemical Pumps. 

1. The Principles of Chemical Pumps and Injectors. 

2. Mechanical Chemical Injectors. 

3. The Low-Pressure Pneumatic Injector. 

4. The High-Pressure Pneumatic Injector. 

5. The Electrical Injector Pump. 

6. The New Style of Chemical Pumps. 

7. Barrel Racks and Bulk Storage Containers. 

E - 2. Solving Special Treating Problems. 

1. Location, Installation, Operation and Maintenance of Chemical Injectors. 

2. Treating Oil: A Review. xxix 

3. Other Treating Procedures That Have Not Been Reviewed. 

4. Batch Treating the Heater/Treater. 

5. Treating High Bottoms by Circulating with Pump and Hoses. 


F - 1 Important Conversion Factors 

F - 2 Lease Pumper Sample Math Problems 

F - 3 Belts And Sheaves 

F - 4 Multiplication Table