Lease Pumper's Handbook Published
by the Commission on Marginally Producing
Oil and Gas Wells of Oklahoma, First
Edition 2003 Written by Leslie V. Langston
Table of Contents Introductions A. Cover
Sheet Book Title B. Publishing Information
First Edition, 2003
The Lease Pumper's Handbook
Published by the Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells of Oklahoma, First Edition 2003 Written by Leslie V. Langston Table of Contents Introductions A. Cover Sheet Book Title B. Publishing Information First Edition, 2003
Written by Leslie V. Langston
Publishing Information. First Edition, 2003. C. Foreword. Rick Chapman, Executive Director (1996-2000) Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma. D. Dedication. John A. Taylor, Chairman (1992-1998) Commission on Marginally Producing Oil And Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma. E. Author’s Introduction. Leslie V. Langston, Author, First Edition F. Commission Introduction. Liz Fajen, Executive Director, Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma.
The Lease Pumper’s Handbook
Chapter 17 Well Servicing and Workover Section D WIRE LINE OPERATIONS D-1. Five Uses for Wire Lines in Servicing Wells. There are many styles of wire line available for use in the oilfields. The wire used is generally either solid wire or wire rope. There are five major purposes for wire lines around well servicing units. Surface uses: · Guying the pulling unit · Line from drum to blocks Downhole uses: · Sand lines · Solid wire lines · Electric lines D-2. Wire Rope. Wire rope consists of strands of solid wire braided in specific patterns around a core to create various shapes (Figure 1). These parts of a wire rope are shown in Figure 2. Figure 1. Typical shapes of wire rope. (courtesy of Williamsport Wirerope Works, Inc.) Figure 2. Parts of a wire rope. (courtesy of Williamsport Wirerope Works, Inc.) 17D-2 Wire lines are available in right- and lefthand lay or twist (Figure 3). Figure 3. Several types of wire rope lay. (courtesy of Williamsport Wirerope Works, Inc.) The correct method of measuring lines is shown in Figure 4. This is important when selecting wire rope accessories such as clamps, blocks, and sheaves. Figure 4. Methods of measuring lines. (courtesy of Williamsport Wirerope Works, Inc.) As illustrated in Figure 5, wire ropes can be damaged. Extreme care must be used to prevent damage to the lines. Guy, sand, and all other lines must be protected. The lines should always be inspected prior to use. Figure 5. Typical wire rope problems. (courtesy of Williamsport Wirerope Works, Inc.) 17D-3 D-3. Functions of Guy Lines. Wire rope used for guy lines is usually right-hand regular lay. This line is available in many sizes but is smaller than the lines used on the drum. When purchasing guy lines, and the pumper should buy line that will not break under load and should check with the manufacturer to select the correct line and core. D-4. Functions of Line from Drum to Blocks. The draw works line used to drill an oil well is different from the lines used on a well servicing unit. The wire rope used for well servicing is rotation-resistant so that the elevators will remain in the same position while traveling up through the derrick, especially when using a single line. The lines are designed to be used on the surface. When purchasing a new line, the pumper will need 500-800 feet or more in order to lower tubing blocks from the crown to the floor. A reserve amount needs to be stored behind the drum divider so that 20 or more feet can be periodically cut off according to the ton-mile schedule. This will extend the life of the line. D-5. Sand Lines. Sand lines are placed on the second drum of the pulling unit or on the drum closer to the cab. Many downhole services are performed by the well servicing crew using the sand line, so it must be long enough to reach the bottom of the hole. Some typical well servicing crew services are: · Swabbing fluids. This operation involves dropping a swab down the hole and lifting fluid out to a vessel to remove it from the tubing to a holding tank. When completing a new well, fracing, or performing other operations, swabbing is necessary to clean up the well bore and matrix area. A satisfactory lubricator with the proper valves and accessories is needed. · Bailing sand. As fluids are produced, sand may migrate from the formation and settle in the bottom of the hole. A sand bailer may be lowered to the bottom of the hole when the tubing is pulled on some wells and the sand bailed. · Cutting paraffin and scale. The well servicing crew may cut paraffin and scale with the sand line with special tools (Figure 6). Figure 6. One style of paraffin scraper. · Running impression blocks. Another function of the sand line is to run an impression block. When a fish or loose object in the hole is lost, the pumper must go fishing to try to retrieve it. When fishing, it is often desirable to run an impression tool in and set it down on the lost item in order to know how to grab hold of the object. A standard or hard impression block is a flat-bottomed tool made of lead. It resembles a flatbottomed drill bit from a distance. · Running scrapers. Before running a packer into the hole, the well servicing crew generally runs a scraper slightly larger than the packer to remove any scale or paraffin. This also checks for collapsed casing. 17D-4 · Pulling standing valves. If problems are encountered while checking for or locating tubing leaks, a standing valve can be dropped into the hole and the tubing filled with water. As the tubing is pulled, the water level will drop to the level of the hole. When that point is reached, the leaking joint is replaced. The sand line can be run in the hole to retrieve the standing valve without having to pull the remaining joints. D-6. Solid Wire Lines. The solid wire line is a single strand of wire. It is run into wells to perform special tests and functions. Several sizes of wire are available, according the depth of the well and job to be performed. These jobs are generally tests or valve placement using a downhole tool usually referred to as a bomb. Temperature surveys are run primarily to detect casing (or tubing) leaks, although they serve other needs as well. Temperature surveys are run each six months to one year to test for leaks in flowing wells. The leak will be detected by a temperature drop or decrease due to the expansion of the escaping gas. Pressure surveys are run on a yearly schedule to determine pressure drop and remaining reservoir fluids. By taking the pressure drop and comparing it to the previous year’s reading, the remaining fluids in the reservoir and the remaining life of the well can be projected. This is also an important factor in regulating the effectiveness of gas injection and reservoir pressure maintenance. For flowing wells the date when artificial lift may become desirable is projected and funds to install it can be scheduled. Directional surveys can also be conducted with a wire line while drilling a well. A clock in the survey bomb is set for a pre-determined time and the tool is lowered into the hole. After the appropriate time has lapsed, the clock will trigger the direction impression on a small bull’s eye disk, rotate the disk 180 degrees, make a second impression, and retrieve the tool. Solid wire lines are used to run and retrieve special tools, such as gas lift valves in wells with side pocket mandrels. The wire line machine is used to change gas lift valves, scrape paraffin and scale, and perform several other functions. There are several other uses for the small solid line such as running, perforating, and retrieving blind plugs. D-7. Electric Lines. Electric lines are used for many purposes in oil wells. When a well is being drilled, open hole survey logs are run to evaluate formations that are being drilled to determine if hydrocarbons encountered have enough volume to make a commercial well. After the casing has been run, cased hole logs can also be conducted. When the casing is cemented, this is usually followed with a cement bond log. In production operations electric logs are run for many purposes. All wells are perforated by use of electric lines. They are also used for measuring depth, conducting temperature and pressure surveys, measuring pressure drop during fracing operations, running tracer surveys, and many other purposes.