Lease Pumper's Handbook Published by the Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells of Oklahoma, First Edition 2003 Written by Leslie V. Langston Table of Contents Introductions A. Cover Sheet Book Title B. Publishing Information First Edition, 2003
 




The Lease Pumper's Handbook

Published by the Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells of Oklahoma, First Edition 2003 Written by Leslie V. Langston Table of Contents Introductions A. Cover Sheet Book Title B. Publishing Information First Edition, 2003

 

Written by Leslie V. Langston

 

Publishing Information. First Edition, 2003. C. Foreword. Rick Chapman, Executive Director (1996-2000) Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma. D. Dedication. John A. Taylor, Chairman (1992-1998) Commission on Marginally Producing Oil And Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma. E. Author’s Introduction. Leslie V. Langston, Author, First Edition F. Commission Introduction. Liz Fajen, Executive Director, Commission on Marginally Producing Oil and Gas Wells, State of Oklahoma.

 

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 The Lease Pumper’s Handbook Chapter 18 Gas Wells Section B FLUID SEPARATION Figure 1. A high-pressure gas well separator that keeps the choke valve from freezing. B-1. High-Pressure Gas Well Separators. Several styles of separators are manufactured for use on gas wells. All of these separators operate at high pressure. A low-pressure oil separator is designed to operate on 100 pounds or less of gauge pressure. The gas well separator is usually designed to operate at 1,000 pounds pressure or more, with a test pressure of approximately 2,000 pounds. To achieve this pressure, the diameter of the vessel is small, usually 24 inches or less, with a much heavier wall thickness. For safety, the sight glasses also use much heavier construction. The separator can always be identified instantly, just by observing the liquid level sight glass. B-2. Three-Phase, High-Pressure Separation and Indirect Heating. When the gas well has a very high pressure and the gas contains water moisture, the gas expands quickly coming out of the choke, becomes very cold, and begins forming ice 18B-2 inside the gas lines. Soon, the ice fills the line for several feet past the choke, the well freezes, and production of gas ceases. After a period of time, the ice will melt, and the well will begin to flow again. After a short time, the line freezes again. To solve this problem, a heated water bath unit was designed. This system is illustrated in Figure 1. This unit has a heated container. The firebox heats the water, and then the water heats the gas and choke valve. The gas enters the water chamber, makes several loops back and forth, then goes through the choke. This hot gas keeps the ice melted at the choke and allows the well to produce. The produced gas then moves up, travels horizontally through the three-stage separator, and on to the dehydration unit for final clean-up and drying. The fluids in the gas—the oil and water— are processed through the high-pressure separator. The water falls to the bottom is removed through the water outlet motor valve. It then flows to the water disposal storage tank. The oil flows over the water disposal unit and travels through the oil outlet motor valve to the distillate storage tank. As water is lost by evaporation out of the atmospheric heat chamber, makeup water can be poured back in through the top of the hydrocarbon separation unit. When it has been determined that too much distillate is being sent down the gas line, a small lowpressure flash separator unit can be added to the unit to separate more distillate. It can increase distillate production. B-3. Vertical Separators That Do Not Require Heat. The vertical high-pressure separator pictured in Figure 2 is a three-phase design. The inlet line from the well enters the separator on the left side. The gas goes up through the center of the top and is directed to the dehydration unit. The two round float controls that are at the right front of the vessel regulate the height of the liquids in the vessel. Figure 2. A high-pressure, three-phase separator. The upper indiscriminate float controls the condensate level in the vessel. The pneumatic diaphragm control valve on the left front of the vessel dumps this liquid to the oil stock tank in the tank battery. The lower float control has a discriminate float inside the lower part of the vessel and dumps the water out through the pneumatic diaphragm control valve at the lower right side of the picture. These controls can be more easily identified in the close-up photograph in Figure 3. 18B-3 Figure 3. A closer view of the pneumatic condensate and water dump valves and a shop-made gas scrubber from Figure 2. A high-pressure 1-inch line and regulator directs gas to the shop-made gas scrubber that sits on the ground at the right side of the picture. This scrubber removes any final liquids ahead of the pneumatic controls. Safety valves and rupture discs are also mounted on the upper right side. The basic system for a small gas well that produces only trace amounts of liquid includes a small separator, a water holding tank, and a gas meter (Figure 4). This along with the well completes the total gas well system. Figure 4. A basic gas well system for low gas volume and little fluid production. 18B-4